Further Elaboration on Lobbying and Public Health Implications
Lobbying Power Demonstrated
I want to start this section by providing an example of how Big Pharma has impacted governmental policies. Big Pharma’s influence in Washington is best exemplified by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (Drutman). Specifically, Medicare Part D, a key part of the act, moved millions of patients from Medicaid to Medicare. Big Pharma encouraged this shift since Medicare receives lower drug prices compared to Medicaid (NCPSSM). The act also banned Medicare, America’s largest provider of medications, from negotiating drug prices with drug companies (NCPSSM).
In turn, Medicare is forced to over-pay for drugs. Since the enactment of Medicare part D, the government is said to spend about $80 billion a year on prescription medications (NCPSSM). All the while, the pharmaceutical industry has experienced an estimated $205 billion increase in revenue in the 10 years since the act’s implementation (Drutman).
No Price Caps
The United States does not place price caps on prescription drugs. Insurance companies and government sponsored social programs typically cover the costs with a high copayments (Paris).
The pharmaceutical companies defend this lack of regulation by attesting that higher prices are necessary because it funds their research and development of new medication (Lllamas). According to PhRMA, FDA-approved drugs are expensive to produce. They argue that other countries benefit from America’s price burden through cheaper prices.
Studies have refuted this defense. It’s difficult to identify the exact cost of research and development but its safe to say that the industries’ high profits and tax breaks would cover the expenses (Llamas). Additionally, research and development is only costly when initially trying to develop a drug. Eventual modifications of the drug are relatively inexpensive in comparison (Llamas).
Effects on Public health
- Poorer patients are vulnerable to the ever-rising costs of drugs. They maybe unable to shoulder the costs of medications or afford the higher co pay thus making the patient less likely to fill prescriptions (Ham).
- Skipping prescriptions has numerous health implications on society. There is an inevitable uptick in the amount of emergency room visits due to an increase in health ailments such as heart and asthma attacks. Also, its reasonable to assume an increase in deaths will ensue (Ham).
Government Sponsored Monopoly
The US law governing the pharmaceutical industry grants pharmaceutical products long term immunity from outside competition (Engelberg). Federal law bans the FDA from approving a generic alternative for at least 7-12 years (Engelberg).
Pharmaceutical companies are legally allowed to maintain monopolies on drugs for years before generics or other cheaper version may enter the marketplace. These extra options drive down prices and give more bargaining power to insurers (Ludwig).
The absence of competing products keep prices artificially high. Drug companies also have less of an incentive to create new and improved drugs (Engelberg). Why would drug companies feel compelled to develop an enhanced a version of their current product when they already control the market and price (Engelberg)? It is more economically advantageous to wait out their monopoly period.
Effects on Public health
- Insurers, social programs and patients are forced to pay premium prices for prescriptions for longer amounts of time. Higher prices for an extensive amount of years contributes to the same public health consequences previously outlined.
- Pharmaceutical companies will be less inclined to develop more advance versions of their product. This may equate to a decline in the medication’s overall effectiveness. The prescription will work on a majority of individuals but modifications may be needed to benefit other potential patients.
Drutman, Lee. “How Corporate Lobbyist Conquered American Democracy.” The Atlantic, 20 Apr. 2015. Web 10 Dec. 2015.
Engelberg, Alfred. “How Government Policy Promotes High Drug Prices” Health Affairs Blog, 29 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 Dec. 2015
Ham, Becky. “Coping With the High Costs of Prescriptions.” Prepared patient Article. Center For Advancing Health (CFAH), ND. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
Llamas, Michelle. “Big Pharma Cashes in on Americans Paying (Higher) Prices for Prescription Drugs.” Drug & Device Manufacturers. DrugWacth, 15 Oct. 2014. Web. Dec. 11 2015.
Ludwig, Mike. “How Much of Big Pharma’s Massive Profits Are Used to Influence Politicians?” Truthout, 30 Sept. 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
“Negotiating for Lower Drug Costs in Medicare Part D.” Entitled to Know. National Committee to Preserve: Social Security & Medicare (NCPSSM), n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2015.
Paris, Valerie. “Why do Americans spend so much on pharmaceuticals.” Health. PBS NEWSHOURS, 7 Feb. 2014. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
Pollack, Andrew. “Drug Goes From $13.50 a tablet to $750, Overnight.” Business Day. The New York Times, 20 Sept. 2015. Web. 13 Dec. 2015.
Pharma: Research, Progress, Hope. N.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2015.